The world body fired the Frenchman in January 2016 over black market World Cup ticket sales and suspect television deals. Valcke is also the target of a Swiss criminal investigation into FIFA's affairs under its former leader Sepp Blatter.
FIFA originally banned Valcke for 12 years but this was reduced to 10 years by a FIFA appeal committee in June last year. His current action at CAS is against the appeal committee.
"Jerome Valcke seeks to have the challenged decision set aside in order for the sanction imposed on him to be lifted definitively," said a CAS statement.
The tribunal said an arbitration panel had not yet been constituted, in an indication that any decision will take several months.
Valcke, who was accused of destroying evidence when under investigation, has repeatedly denied any wrongdoing.
Following the ban, FIFA said last June that it had passed on information to Swiss prosecutors and US authorities about the activities of Blatter and Valcke.
In 2008, Valcke's office transferred $10 million on behalf of South African officials organising the 2010 World Cup to senior FIFA officials in the Caribbean. US prosecutors suspect the money was a bribe in return for voting for South Africa to host the World Cup.